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牛津高中英语教材“Reading”板块的整体教学初探
2016-01-06 信息来源: 张弓弼

牛津高中英语教材“Reading”板块的整体教学初探

  张柳娟

 

牛津高中英语教材阅读(Reading)板块,话题广泛、内容丰富、语言纯正、文化背景浓厚,是学生学习英语、了解文化、培养语言能力、拓展思维能力和提高综合能力的主渠道,也是教材中每个单元的重要教学板块。但在教学过程中如何科学合理地教学,避免把它变成单一的语法课、词汇课、翻译课、阅读课,或者有时由于教学时间有限而把它变成支离破碎的片段集锦课,只匆匆浏览些表面的东西。其实,一篇好的“Reading”课文非常值得我们由浅入深地、由表及里地、由点到面地、有始有终地、完整彻底地去学习、品味、挖掘、巩固、拓展其语言及内容及文化。

如何引领学生逐步开启话题,引导学生激起学习兴趣,指导学生掌握重点语言,激发学生卷入课堂活动,拓展学生知识视野挖掘学生内在潜能,促进学生延伸思考,使学生完整地领略文章的语言和思想,促进学生整体英语素质和学习能力。如何在处理“Reading板块的时候,努力创建形成一个合理的、科学的、有效的从Pre-reading(阅读前)到While-reading(阅读中)再到Post-reading(阅读后)这样一个由浅入深、逐步深入、逐步拓展、完整有效的教学模式和知识体系,体现素质教育的教学思想,这是自我开始运用牛津教材以来一直在尝试和探索的问题。

下面,我以“Oxford English SIA Unit 3---Places of Interest(名胜古迹)”为例, 谈谈我对牛津高中英语教材中阅读(Reading)板块的整体教学的探索尝试。

 

I. 关于教材

“Places of Interest” is a reading passage of Unit 3 (A Taste of Travel) in senior book one of Oxford English, Shanghai Edition. The main topic of the passage is tourism in China. It consists of four short descriptions of some popular sites and places of interest for tourists to visit in China: The Great Wall, The Shanghai Museum, the Potala Palace and the Li River in Guilin.

 

II. 教学目标

1. 语言目标

To master the key language points and the content of the passage

(1)  words and phrases: containitem, take shape, be preserved as, man-made structure, enjoy a superb view of,  landscape,  viewfascinate,  reflection

(2)  sentence patterns:

A.  The Great Wall twists and turns along the tops of mountain chains in northern China.

B.  The Shanghai Museum is a magnificent structure with a square base and a round top.

C.  Take a boat trip, and you will be fascinated by the odd peaks along the river and their reflections in the clear water.

 

2. 能力目标-

To use various methods to develop students’ different language skills, and most importantly to engage the students in the integration of those skills. therefore, the students will acquire a rich and authentic usage of the English language.

 

3. 情感目标

To make full use of the teaching materials to arouse the students love for mother nature and our motherland. To make the students realize that all the magnificent places of interest of our country result from people’s diligence and intelligence. To educate the students to do their utmost in studies for our motherland.

 

III. 学法和教法

1. 学法“SQ3R”

The Method proposed for students is the Method of SQ3R:  S: Survey  Q: Question  R1: Read  R2: Recite  R3: Review

The aim of learning is not only to become familiar with the materials provided by the teachers but also to learn the target language by seeking more relevant information. The essence of language learning is to fully develop the language skills. This method of SQ3R helps the students to achieve the aim and to acquire active and self-reliant learning.

 

2. 教法问题--情景,实践--交流

The method proposed for teacher is the Method of “Situations & Activities; Practice & Communication”. The use of this method helps to obtain a learner-centered and content-centered approach, which is quite different from the usual spoon-feeding way of teaching. With the function of getting the students fully involved in class activities, this method proves useful for the acquisition of rich and authentic English.

 

IV. 教学设计

1. 读前活动Pre-reading

 

(1) 引出问题和话题Start students thinking about the following question by brainstorming. Why do people travel to another country?

 

Elicit answers such as shopping, eating, sightseeing, visiting relatives or friends, emigration, education, excitement and adventures, relaxation and pleasure, business….

 

(2) 引出兴趣Tell the students that, among the top ten tourist destinations, China is the 5th most popular in the world, with up to a hundred million tourists within the country and from abroad every year.

(This information stimulates students’ enthusiasm for their country, and their eagerness to learn about and to investigate places of interest in China.)

(这一活动不仅要唤起学生兴趣,而且激励学生对祖国的热爱,激发他们了解和探索祖国名胜古迹的渴望。)

 

(3) 热身学生Ask students to make a list of places tourists might visit in China.

 

(4) 启动学生Ask students what attractions these listed places have and invite them to discuss their opinions.

 

(5) 阅读准备Hand out some publicity materials which China Tourist Association produces and present some landscape paintings downloaded from the Internet.

 

(6) 略读获取主旨意思Ask students to skim the passage.

l                   What’s the main topic of the passage?

l                   How many places are mentioned in the passage?

l                   What are the names of the places?

 

(7) 查读获取特定信息Ask students to scan the passage. Scan Places of Interest and find information to complete the table below. Match the name of each place with the number and a related picture shown in the passage.

Place

Number

Picture

The Potala Palace

(paragraph)3

D

The Great Wall

         1

C

The Li River

         4

A

The Shanghai Museum

         2

B

 

( The purpose of this phase serves as a warmer or a text orientation.)

(上面几个阅读前(Pre-reading)的导入准备活动起到学习热身和熟悉课文的作用,同时引起学生学习兴趣,启动学生初步了解并进入阅读主题,为接下来的While-reading作准备和铺垫。)

 

2. 读中活动 While-reading

 

(1) 细读获取整体理解

Ask students to read the whole passage intensively and comprehensively and get the synopsis of each paragraph:

P1: The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders in the world

P2: Shanghai Museum, a magnificent structure with large collections of ancient Chinese items

P3: Potala Palace, a palace of Tibetan Buddhism and Tibetan Civilization

P4: Guilin, a wonderland with unique landscapes

 

(2) 梳理关键语言点

A. 关键单词和词组

  take shape= take on a definite form

Completely new relations between teachers and students are taking shape in our school.

     contain:

Sea water contains salt.

The garden contains a large collection of living examples of plants that grow in the local area.

     item:

news items/ an important item on the agenda/ historical items from the Tibetan civilization

     preserve= keep from harm or damage

The old house was preserved as a museum.

Ancient Egyptians knew of means to preserve dead bodies from decay.

     admit:

Joanne admitted feeling hurt by what I had said.

   We have to admit that the original plan is not really practical.

   Only ticket- holders will be admitted into the stadium.

     view:

There’s no view from my hotel bedroom window.

    May I have your views on those terrorist incidents?

     landscape= a wide view of country scenery

They stood at the top of the mountain and viewed the beautiful landscape.

The two hills with the valley formed a beautiful landscape.

     fascinate= attract or interest somebody greatly

Children are often fascinated by the toys in the shop window.

fascination: Old castles have a certain strange fascination for me.

     reflect= throw back light, heat, sound etc.; produce, show

The sidewalks reflect heat on a hot day.

The novel reflects the life-style and customs of the people in the remote mountain areas.

reflection: The reflection of the moon in the still water produces a superb view.

 

B. 关键句型

The Great Wall twists and turns along the tops of mountain chains in northern China.

The Shanghai Museum is a magnificent structure with a square base and a round top.

Take a boat trip, and you will be fascinated by the odd peaks along the river and their reflections in the clear water.

 

(3) 讨论、交流

Ask students to work in groups and to exchange views on the passage. Teacher monitors each group during the course.

 

(4) 畅谈(对祖国美丽山河的)感想

Encourage students to voice their feelings when learning the passage about the stunning beauty of our country.

 

(5) 情景交流、实际运用

Students brainstorm in small groups to prepare for conversations in a tourist agency. Teacher acts as an advisor, orienting and guiding the students. Students then perform their creations in the front of the classroom.

 

(The purpose of While-reading is to create an information gap for the students as well as to motivate them and get all the students participating in using the target language.)

(这部分读中活动(While-reading)是要为学生创造一个信息鸿沟,同时激励所有学生参与卷入使用目标语言的课堂活动,加强问题情景,实践交流获取知识,获取信息。)

 

3. 读后活动 Post-reading

 

 (1) 拓展阅读国外的一些名胜古迹

Students do the supplementary reading in the “MORE READING” section which is at the end of Unit 3 (A Taste of Travel). The supplementary reading contains information about places of interest in other countries: Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the Colosseum in Italy and the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt.

(Doing the supplementary reading will help students broaden their worldview and discover more about foreign cultures.)

 

(2) 学生课后自主查找挖掘更多有关旅游和名胜古迹的资料和信息Students are asked to use a large variety of mediums e.g. books, magazines, leaflets, tourist brochures, advertisements, pictures, Internet to find more information on tourism and places of interest.

Teacher can provides the students with some reference websites:

http://www.cnta.gov.cn/index.asp

http://www.chinatour.com/data/data.htm

http://badaling.gov.cn

http://www.shanghaimuseum.net/cn/index.asp

http://www.visitguilin.com

http://www.columbusguides.com

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/

 

(3) 角色扮演游客和导游

Students work in groups, performing roles of tourists and tour guides, the tourists express their travel requirements and travel plans while the tour guides work in groups to make advertisements for the four scenic spots in the READING section and in the MORE READING section or to make advertisements for other tourist attractions that they prefer, in order to make recommendations for those “tourists”.

( The purpose of this activity is to consolidate what has been read and to create a chance for the students to broaden their minds.)

(学生通过角色扮演游客和导游,运用目标语言去介绍推广旅游产品,得以巩固所读东西,锻炼了目标英语,拓宽了思维和视野。)

 

(4) 介绍分享自己难忘的旅游经历

Students introduce to the whole class an impressive vacation or journey by showing photos or by means of other multimedia.

 

(5) 阐述话题,表达观点

Students give their own opinions on the topic: Do you think travelling makes you open minded? If so, in what ways has travelling broadened your mind?

 

(6) 分组做有关旅游的课程项目

Students work in several groups to do a project on tourism. In the project, students devise a questionnaire and then use it to get results which are interpreted and written up as a report. The project can be organized in the following way:

l                   Students are told they are going to work in groups to write a report and present the report about tourism based on a questionnaire they will later orally design.

l                   Teacher discusses with the class what kind of information they might want to obtain and the kind of questions they would use to get it. The following areas are possible options: popularity of tours, reasons for (not) travelling, most / least popular tourist places, knowledge about the places of interest……

l                   The groups write their different questionnaires. The teacher can act as a resource or a prompter.

l                   The groups then administrate their questionnaires. Students may use target or non-target language to get the results they want.

l                   The groups study the collected information and then write a report in which they reach conclusions about the results of their investigations. Then each group presents the report orally. Reports can be compared. By way of follow-up, groups can read other groups’ work and discuss the similarities and differences with their own.

(The purpose of doing this project is to provide students an opportunity to communicate in various situations. In addition, the oral reports offer students the challenge of drafting and perfecting their report by striving for accuracy so that the aim of the acquisition of authentic language can be achieved.) 

 

(The purpose of Post-reading is to expose students to more extensive reading and more free thinking through interactive and collaborative work, and to facilitate students’ potentials and overall language proficiency.)

 

“读后活动”(Post-reading)牛津高中英语教材阅读(Reading)部分教学设计中的一个不可忽视的环节,应受到十分重视,它是在课内学习基础上的再发挥、再积累、再延伸,再拓展、再思考、再创造的过程。要是没有这一环节,课文学习也就缺少了深度,广度,高度,更缺少了学习的完整性, 学生的语言综合运用能力、思考能力、和思想表达能力以及其他综合素质能力也将受到限制,我们的教学也就缺乏逐步深入、逐步拓展、完整有效这一目的。

 

总之,在牛津高中英语教材阅读(Reading板块的教学中,要注重教学设计和教学过程的完整性。要尤其重视Pre-reading Post-reading环节,缺乏 Pre-reading Post-reading就失去了对教材的深度、意义、优美和内涵的挖掘,学生也就失去了学习语言和文化和开发潜能表达思想的好机会。 因此,在牛津高中英语教材阅读(Reading板块的教学中,从引出话题,激起兴趣,启动学生开始,到最后的拓展阅读,表达观点,参与课程项目,达到一个循序前进的一个完整过程,并运用问题--情景,实践--交流” SQ3R这一教学理念,创造机会使学生的英语听说读写综合能力(Integrated Skills)得到锻炼,并有机会运用目标语言表达思想和想法。总之,在牛津高中英语教材阅读(Reading板块的教学中要有合理整体的设计、目标和思路。注重Pre-reading过程中的引导和兴趣,注重While-reading过程中的知识习得和语言运用,注重Post-reading过程中的巩固拓展和再创造再升华,使牛津高中英语教材“Reading”板块的教学达到完整、有效和难忘。

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